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Total Polar compounds in frying oil

TRIAL SAMPLE: 796 (February 2017)

Oils and fats represent one of the three major classes of food constituents together with carbohydrates and proteins. Deep-fat frying is one of the most popular cooking procedures and leads to the production of both desirable and undesirable compounds. The cooking process affects the physicochemical characteristics and quality of the frying medium and the fried product itself.
The quality of oils and fats during the frying process has a major influence on the quality of the final product. Thermal processing of frying oils leads to oxidative and hydrolytic reactions i.e. hydrolysis and polymerisation and these chemical and physical changes lead to the formation of many volatile and non-volatile decomposition products. The majority of the non-volatile compounds formed during frying are, for convenience, classified as “Total Polar compounds” (TPC) and the formation of such compounds during repeated frying has been shown to increase with the degree of oil unsaturation.

The determination of the percentage of Total polar compounds (% TPC) is one of the most reliable methods for monitoring the quality changes in oils during the frying process and it reflects the degradation of the oil after repeated use. In order to protect consumers, several countries and International bodies have issued recommendations or a regulation which set maximum limits for the percentage of TPC, and regulates the use of oils & fats subjected to frying. Countries that control the quality of frying oil include:

 

A/A

COUNTRY

LEGISLATION/RECOMMENDATION

LIMITS %TPC

1

France

Legislation

25

2

Germany

Recommendations by the German Society for Fat Science (DGF)

24

3

Italy

Legislation

25

4

Poland

Legislation

25

5

Spain

Legislation

25

6

Brazil

Recommendation

25

7

South Africa

Regulation

25


The Food Safety & Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) released a statement dated 23rd September 2016, which addresses the issue of or repeated use of edible oils in cooking and frying of food by amending current standards (Food Products Standards and Food additives-FSS) to set a maximum limit for % TPC.
In light of the increasing concern, LGC Standards has included a new sample, total polar compounds in frying oil to the food chemistry proficiency testing scheme (QFCS). Palm oil was chosen as a material for this proficiency testing (PT) trial sample.  It is extensively used in commercial frying, fat spreads and generally in the food industry as it is the cheapest of all major edible oils and it is produced in the greatest quantity worldwide.  The fatty acid composition of palm oil is 50% saturated and 50 % unsaturated fat, it is relatively stable to oxidation and is naturally semi solid in room temperature, so does not require hydrogenation to become solid. You can find more details in Scheme Documentation.

By Savvas Xystouris, Technical/Development Manager, Proficiency Testing
LGC Standards

References
European Parliament, Directorate General for research, Scientific and technological options assessment panel (STOA) ‘Recycled cooking oils: Assessment of risks for public health, Final study’ (2000), Available from www.europarl.europa.eu, (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/search.html?keywords=001269).

Takeoka G.R., Full G.H. and Dao L.T. 1997. Effect of heating on the characteristics and chemical composition of selected frying oils and fats. J. Agric. Food Chem., Vol. 45, pp. 3244-3249.

Andrikopoulos N.K., Boskou G., Dedoussis G.V.Z., Chiou A., Tzamtzis V.A. and Papathanasiou A., Quality assessment of frying oils and fats from 63 restaurants in Athens, Greece. Food Serv. Tech., 2003, Vol. 3, pp. 49-59.

Sebastian A., Ghazani M. S. and Marangoni G. A.,  ‘Quality and safety of frying oils used in restaurants’, Food Research International, Vol. 64, 2014, pp.  420-423.

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